ICAN EXPERT TRAINING SERIES

The ICAN Expert Training Series is composed of presentations from renowned multi-disciplinary experts who participate in the Child Death Review Team of the Inter-Agency Council on Child Abuse and Neglect (ICAN). The ICAN Child Death Review Team is comprised of representatives from governmental and community agencies involved in the child protection system. The Team evaluates the step-by-step progression that led to the death of a child and develops strategies to prevent future fatalities. From this training, participants will develop a better understanding of medical, legal, social and educational issues relevant to the prevention, identification and treatment of severe and fatal child abuse as well as child and adolescent suicides.

Training for LA County Employees will be made available through the Learning Net.

For ICAN Community Partners wishing to view trainings, please email: Marianne Yamato at Chavem@dcfs.lacounty.gov.

This course series meets the qualifications for hours of continuing education credit for LMFTs, LCSWs, LPCCs and/or LEPs as required by the California Board of Behavioral Sciences. ICAN Associates is approved by the California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists to sponsor continuing education for LMFTs, LCSWs, LPCCs and/or LEPs. ICAN maintains responsibility for this program/course and its content. Continuing Education Credits for LA County Employees.

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DEANNE TILTON DURFEE

Executive Director, ICAN

Presenting: Introduction to each Expert Series Presentations

Deanne Tilton Durfee is Executive Director of the Los Angeles County Inter-Agency Council on Child Abuse and Neglect (ICAN). ICAN is the largest multi-agency county based child abuse council in the Country. Mrs. Tilton Durfee also developed ICAN Associates, a private non-profit charity comprised of corporate and media representatives. This partnership promotes the development and networking of comprehensive multi-disciplinary and community based child abuse programs. She served as a Child Welfare Worker, a Juvenile Court Liaison Supervisor, a Supervising Children’s Services Worker, and a Regional Services Administrator before being selected to administer ICAN. In 1996, ICAN was designated the National Center for Child Fatality Reviews. Ms. Tilton Durfee served from 1984-1990 as a member of the Board of Directors of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA). She also served as a Commissioner on the California Attorney General’s Commission on the Enforcement of Child Abuse Laws. Ms. Tilton Durfee served as a Federal Commissioner on the U.S. Attorney General’s Commission on Pornography, Chairing the Committee on Child Pornography. In January, 1987 she was appointed by the Governor to the California Child Victim Witness Judicial Advisory Committee. In 1989, she was appointed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect. In 1993, she was elected Chairperson of the U.S. Advisory Board. She previously served as a member of the California Children’s Justice Act Task Force and the California State Child Death Review Council. She currently serves as a Commissioner on the First 5 LA Commission. In October 2011, Ms. Tilton became a member of the Attorney General’s National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence.  Ms. Tilton Durfee holds a Doctorate in Humanities from the Chicago School for Professional Psychology.

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CLAYTON KAZAN, M.D.

Medical Director, Los Angeles County Fire Department

Presenting: Situational Awareness and Emergency Medicine and Emergency Medical Services

Course Description: This eLearning discusses situational awareness and identifies potential threats and dangerous situations from the perspective of Emergency Medical Services. It reviews how agencies are sometimes fragmented and how silos in our systems need to break up. During this eLearning, participants will be provided a case regarding a child and the timeline of treatment prior to fatality.

Biography: Dr. Clayton Kazan was born and raised in Los Angeles and attended UCLA for his undergraduate education. While there, he took the Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) class and worked on the UCLAEMS Ambulance. After graduating with his BS in Biology in 1996, he attended the Chicago Medical School. While living in Chicago, he worked as a firefighter and EMT on a local volunteer Fire Department. Dr. Kazan graduated in 2001 with his MD degree and with an MS in Clinical Pathology and completed a Transitional Internship at the University of Hawaii before returning to Los Angeles to complete his Emergency Medicine Residency at UCLA and Olive View-UCLA in 2005. He worked full time as an Emergency Physician at St. Francis Medical Center in Lynwood until being hired as the Medical Director of the Los Angeles County Fire Department in 2015. He is a devoted UCLA fan, as are his wife and two children.

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CATHERINE DeRIDDER, M.D.

Program Director Violence Intervention Program, LAC +USC Medical Center and Assistant Professor of Pediatrics USC Keck School of Medicine

Presenting: Child Abuse Lessons Learned

Course Description: This eLearning provides a glimpse of child abuse lessons learned from the perspective of a Pediatrician who is also a child abuse expert for both Dependency and Criminal Courts. Child abuse risk factors are addressed, examples of common injuries in child abuse cases, and when to become suspicious of injuries. Photos and discussion of case injuries are explained of patterned injuries, rib fractures, CLM’s, Head Trauma, Hemorrhages, and Child Sexual Abuse. The purpose of this eLearning is to provide participants with a small amount of medical knowledge of some common child abuse examples.

Presenting: The Medical HUB System in Los Angeles County

Course Description: This eLearning will provide participants with an overview of the Los Angeles County Medical HUB System. Medical HUBS offer services when allegations of child abuse and neglect are in play, and have pediatricians that have been trained in child abuse issues. Participants will learn where Medical HUBS are located in LA County, how to refer a child to them, and what specifically Medical HUBS can provide them including forensic exams, medical clearances, initial exams, etc. The purpose of the eLearning is for participants to gain knowledge of how the services provided at Medical HUBS can help provide a better assessment of a child where child abuse and neglect is suspected.

Biography: Catherine DeRidder, MD is an associate program director at the Violence Intervention Program and is an assistant professor of clinical pediatrics at Keck School of Medicine of USC. She is board certified in general pediatrics and child abuse pediatrics. She sees patients where there are allegations of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect in the inpatient and outpatient settings at LAC+USC Medical Center and is also an expert for both dependency and criminal court. She completed medical school at Indiana University School of Medicine, pediatric residency at Riley Hospital for Children in Indianapolis, and child abuse fellowship at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA.

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COMMANDER CARLOS MARQUEZ

Los Angeles County Sheriff Department

Presenting: Criminal Investigation of a Child Abuse Case

Course Description: This eLearning will clarify the tools participants must possess for Investigations. The eLearning begins by taking an introspective approach challenging participants to look at their own skill set, experience, passion, and determination as to why they chose the field of Investigation, and how it will affect their investigations. This eLearning then looks into the Investigative Process from initial complaint, evidence, multi-disciplinary teams for assessment, and provides basic tips for investigating and more

Biography: Commander, Carlos A. Marquez, a 32 years+ veteran of the Los Angeles County Sheriff ’s Department, was promoted to the rank of Commander and assigned to Homicides and the Special Victims Bureau (SVB), where he was previously Captain. Commander Marquez’s career with the Sheriff ’s Department began in 1988. After graduating from the Sheriff ’s Training Academy as a Deputy Sheriff, he was assigned to the Pitchess Detention Center East Facility. Captain Marquez was assigned to the Twin Towers Jail Construction Unit, Carson Station, Training Bureau, and the Special Victims Bureau. Upon his promotion to Sergeant in 2000, Captain Marquez was assigned to the Santa Clarita Station and to the Bureau of Compliance.

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JENNIFER LOPEZ, MA

Regional Administrator, Department of Children and Family Services

Presenting: DCFS Response to Child Fatalities and Important Assessment Skills for Prevention of Fatalities and Critical Incidents

Course Description: This eLearning presented by an LA County DCFS Regional Administrator explores DCFS response to child fatalities and important assessment skills for preventing fatalities and critical incidents. Case presentations are provided of children who were severely abused and DCFS’ response to these severe cases. Practical protocols for Social Workers to take when assessing abused children are also provided.

Biography: Jennifer Lopez is currently the Regional Administrator at the Santa Fe Springs office and a valued member of ICAN.  Ms. Lopez has a wealth of child welfare experience during her 30 plus years working in all the different capacities with DCFS.

Ms. Lopez has worked in the following capacities:

  • Children’s Social Worker

  • Supervising Children’s Social Worker

  • Assistant Regional Administrator – Emergency Response Command Post

  • Regional Administrator – Emergency Response Command Post

  • Division Chief – Adoption Safe Family Act, Kinship Support Division

  • Division Chief – Risk Management Division, Child Fatality Unit, CACI Appeals, Litigation, Internal Affairs

  • Acting Deputy Director – Bureau of Executive Office, Risk Management Division, Emergency Response Command Post, Child Protection Hotline

  • Division Chief Temporarily assigned at Resource Support Family and Permanency Division (RSFPD)

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PHILIP HYDEN, M.D.

Medical Director of East San Gabriel Valley HUB Clinic, LAC-USC Violence Intervention Program

Presenting: Burns and Child Abuse

Course Description: This eLearning will provide participants with an overview and epidemiology of burns in Child Abuse cases including characteristics of burns, scarring, health care costs, types of burns, and the role of time and temperature. Each year approximately 1200 children die from fires and burns. Through graphic photos and case presentations, participants will see the trauma and significance that burns play in evaluating child abuse cases.

Biography: Dr. Philip Hyden, M.D. is a pediatrician and a non-practicing attorney. He is a Board Certified Child Abuse Pediatrician and Board Certified General Pediatrician. Dr. Hyden is the Medical Director of the East San Gabriel Valley HUB Clinic, LAC-USC Violence Intervention Program. Dr. Hyden has been a physician since 1987 and has practiced in New York, Chicago, Colorado, Hawaii and California.

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CLAUDIA WANG, M.D.

Medical Director, UCLA Scan Team, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics at David Geffen School of Medicine and Mattel Children’s Hospital

Presenting: Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy

Course Description: This eLearning provides participants with an overview of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy. Participants will learn to identify risk factors of child abuse and neglect, which leads to an increase of the risk of child maltreatment. Safety nets for decreasing risks are discussed where multi-agencies must work together. This eLearning describes Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy, a form of child maltreatment in which an adult falsifies physical and or psychological signs and/or symptoms in a victim, causing the victim to be regarded as ill by others.  This eLearning looks at how children receive unnecessary and potentially harmful medical care at the instigation of a caretaker, looks at methods by which conditions may be intentionally falsified, epidemiology, and participants are provided case studies to enhance their knowledge.

Biography: Dr. Claudia Wang is a Clinical Professor of Pediatrics at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and serves as the Medical Director of the Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect Team. She is board-certified in pediatrics as well as child abuse pediatrics. Dr. Wang has focused her creative efforts in the development of teaching curriculums used for training providers. She provides advanced physical abuse trainings for the Los Angeles County DCFS social workers. Dr. Wang has been involved with the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) National Taskforce focusing on establishing national guidelines for the detection, evaluation and treatment of Munchausen by Proxy. These national guidelines were published in 2017

by APSAC. Dr. Wang sits on the Los Angeles Inter-Agency Council on Child Abuse and Neglect (ICAN) Policy Committee, and is the secretary of the local chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

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JANICE WOODS, M.D.

Board Certified Pediatrician with special interest in Child Abuse Medicine, Court Pediatric Program at Edelman Children’s Court

Presenting: Children’s Medical Services Court Pediatric Program

Course Description: This eLearning provides an overview of the Children’s Medical Services Court Pediatric Program. The program works with children who have complex medical needs and also provides advice to DCFS, Court, Judges, County Counsel, and Medical HUBS. Information regarding California Children’s Services (CCS) and how it can help children under 21 years of age access specialized healthcare. The purpose of this eLearning is to provide participants with an overview of the Court Pediatric Program and provide an understanding of the importance of helping children with disabilities as they are at a higher risk of abuse, neglect and re-abuse.

Biography: Dr. Janice Woods is a board certified pediatrician with special interest in Child abuse medicine and caring for children in foster care.  She attended undergraduate school at University of California, Riverside and medical school at Howard University.  She has been privileged to work for the County of Los Angeles for most of her medical career.  Dr. Woods’ residency and fellowship were at Martin Luther King/Drew Medical Center where she was a faculty member for several years after graduation. Dr. Woods became interested in the field of child abuse medicine after finishing her Master’s in Public Health at UCLA and began working at LAC+USC in the VIP clinic where she received extensive experience in forensic evaluations, for both sexual abuse and physical abuse.  This gave her the opportunity to advance to Medical Director at the Hub at High Desert Health System View after which she transferred to become Medical Director at the Hub at High Desert Health System. Dr. Woods current position is with the Department of Public Health where she works with Children’s Medical Services (CMS) providing expert consultation to Edelman Dependency Court for children with complex medical conditions. 

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RON GELTZ

Head Deputy District Attorney for the Family Violence Division of District Attorney’s Office

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PAK KOUCH

Deputy-In-Charge, Complex Child Abuse Section, Family Violence Division of District Attorney’s Office 

Presenting: Child Abuse Prosecutions in Los Angeles County: The Intersection of Child Abuse and Domestic Violence and Using a Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Protecting Children

Course Description: This eLearning presented by two Deputy District Attorneys of LA County’s DA Office, provides legal information of where child abuse charges fall-felonies or misdemeanors. It further discusses information that prosecutors need for the presentation of their cases. Statistics on child abuse cases and the importance of reviewing a case using a multi-disciplinary approach is discussed, as well as the intersection of child abuse and domestic violence. The purpose of this eLearning is for participants to understand the DA’s role in child abuse prosecutions and the importance of using a multi-disciplinary approach to protecting children.

Biography Ron Geltz: Ron Geltz has been a Deputy District Attorney for almost 33 years. He has been involved in Child Abuse and Domestic Violence cases since 1989 and personally conducted the prosecution of dozens of trials as part of the Victim Impact Program. He was the Deputy-in charge of the Child Abduction Unit in the early 2000s where he handled cases of international abduction. He was also the Chairperson of the Policies and Procedures Subcommittee of the VIP Working Group for 7 years where he drafted and supervised the creation of child abuse and domestic violence policies for the District Attorney’s Office. Ron is a Head Deputy District Attorney and most recently was the Head Deputy of the Family Violence Division where his supervision encompasses the Complex Child Abuse Section, which prosecutes the most serious child physical abuse cases in Los Angeles County.

Biography Pak Kouch: Pak Kouch is the deputy-in-charge of the Complex Child Abuse Section of the Family Violence Division, a section created in 2016 to handle cases involving suspected abusive head trauma in children and child deaths involving medically complex causes or time of death issues. The specialized section works with law enforcement personnel, child abuse pediatricians and the Department of Children and Family Services as a multidisciplinary team to maximize the potential for positive outcomes. Ms. Kouch has been a deputy district attorney since 2000 with various trial assignments in the Family Violence Division, Victim Impact Program and the Pomona Branch Office. She has conducted numerous complex jury trials including a triple-murder death-penalty case, multiple-murder special-circumstances cases, attempted murder, child abuse, sexual assault, gang, robbery and domestic violence cases. Ms. Kouch has trained prosecutors and law enforcement personnel locally and nationally on child abuse, child homicides, no-body homicides, jury selection, motions, sexual assaults and domestic violence. Ms. Kouch graduated from Occidental College with a degree in public policy and received her law degree from Southwestern University School of Law School.

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CAROL BERKOWITZ, M.D.

Chief, General Pediatrics Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics at David Geffen School of Medicine and Co-Chair ICAN Child Death Review Team

Presenting: Reducing Infant Deaths from Unsafe Sleep: Changing Parental Behavior

Course Description: This eLearning provides an overview of Sudden Unexpected Infant Death (SUID). Cases of SUID are discussed. The Infant Safe Sleep for Baby Public Awareness campaign in Los Angeles County is discussed and how the campaign significantly changed the incidence of SUID. Asphyxia (suffocation) related to unsafe sleep scope of investigations in SUID cases, and challenges are also discussed. The purpose of this eLearning is to provide the participant with a range of information to help reduce infant deaths from unsafe sleep.

Biography: Dr. Carol Berkowitz is currently Chief, General Pediatrics Harbor UCLA Medical Center and Professor of Clinical Pediatrics at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. She is a former President of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and has held numerous other national leadership positions including President of the Ambulatory Pediatric Association (APA, now the Academic Pediatric Association), President of the Association of Pediatric Program Directors (APPD), Chair of the Residency Review Committee (RRC) for Pediatrics, Chair of the Council of RRC Chairs, and President of the Council of Medical Specialty Societies (CMSS). Dr. Berkowitz has served on the Board of Directors of the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) and the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). She is a delegate from the AAP to the American Medical Association (AMA) and serves on the AMA’s Council on Medical Education.

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LARA DRINO

Deputy City Attorney, Director of Child Abuse Policy and Prevention for the LA City Attorney

Presenting: Children and Guns, Keeping Our Children Safe

Course Description: This eLearning will provide participants with information regarding children dying or being shot unintentionally because of unsafe storage of guns. It provides information and data on the prevention of school shootings and unintentional shootings. Further it provides the participant of CA laws regarding weapon storage. The purpose of the eLearning is to build knowledge regarding keeping our children safe from guns.

Biography: Lara A. Drino is the Director of Child Abuse Policy and Prevention for the Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office. She has spent the majority of her career in the Family Violence Division and Child Abuse Prosecution Section in her office. As a prosecutor for 26 years, she has tried over 125 jury trials to verdict. Most of her trials were crimes against children or where children were witnesses. Lara has received training in the area of Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, the FBI, and from multiple law enforcement and child maltreatment agencies. She has worked closely with multi-disciplinary agencies here in Los Angeles to prosecute cases involving sexual abuse. Lara is a regular instructor for the Los Angeles City Attorney’s office and teaches classes as well as speaks at conferences for law enforcement, social workers, child advocates, parent groups, and community organizations. She is working with other agencies including LAUSD to explore new ways to intervene, educate and be proactive in reducing trauma for Children Exposed to Violence both in the home and in the community. She is leading the Los Angeles City Attorney’s Initiative on Children Exposed to Gun Violence (CEGV) in South Los Angeles by working closely with the Los Angeles Police Department and Children’s Institute Inc., by coordinating a crisis response team, the “REACH” team,” to intervene within the first 24 hours to reduce trauma for children exposed directly or indirectly with gun violence

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STEPHANIE MURRAY

School Psychologist, Whittier Union High School District, Co-Chair LA County Child and Adolescent Suicide Review Team

Presenting: Suicide Prevention (Children and Adolescents)

Course Description: This eLearning provides an overview of suicide prevention for children and adolescents. Participants will learn suicide terminology- the Do’s and Don’ts when talking about suicide. Risk factors, suicide data, precipitating events, warning signs, protective factors and lessons learned will be discussed. Participants will be provided with resources for suicide prevention. The purpose of the eLearning is to build participant understanding of suicide and the importance of supporting children and adolescents.

Biography: Stephanie Murray has been a practicing school psychologist for over 25 years, working at the Whittier Union High School District throughout her career.  She became active in suicide prevention early in her career as a school psychologist, revising and training others in a structured Suicide Risk Assessment procedure in the school she was placed at.  Ms. Murray joined the Los Angeles County Child and Adolescent Suicide Review Team over 20 years ago, and has been on the team ever since, serving as a co-chair of the team for the last 3 years.  Ms. Murray is also active in the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Network, and in a subgroup focusing on youth, including those in schools.  During the 2013-14 school year, Ms. Murray partnered with others in her school district to develop a comprehensive suicide prevention practice to the district, to ensure that all schools in the district utilized and provided a comprehensive and consistent approach to suicide prevention, and has provided trainings to other school districts regarding this approach and implementation.  Ms. Murray also currently consults with the Center for Distance and Online Learning division (CDOL) of the Los Angeles County Office of Education with regards to a suicide prevention training program, the SPORT 2, or Suicide Prevention Ongoing Resiliency Training.  Ms. Murray was raised in Honolulu, where her parents continue to reside, and received her bachelor’s degree from UCLA, and both Masters degrees, in School Counseling, and in Educational Psychology from Loyola Marymount University.

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LINDA GARCIA, MA

Child Life Specialist, Faculty Azusa Pacific University

Presenting: The Needs of Bereaved Children

Course Description: This eLearning will provide participants with lessons learned from children who experience death of a loved one. In many cases, when a sibling or parent dies, a child suffers traumatic grief and loss. When children experience fatal family violence, they are traumatized from the loss and often from witnessing a devastating event. There is also trauma if children are taken away from their friends, neighbors and school and put into placement. Numerous agencies come in contact with children after a death but often agencies are not collaborating. 2 Case examples are provided to participants in this eLearning. The purpose of the training is to inform participants that grief interventions for children left behind after a death needs to be a priority in case planning.

Biography: Linda Garcia is a Certified Child Life Specialist with extensive clinical practice working with chronically ill, injured, and suspected child abuse and neglect children and families.  Linda worked at UCLA Medical Center for 18 years, was the Child Life Director at Children’ s Hospital Los Angeles for 10 years, and currently practicing at the Grossman Burn Center.  Her clinical practice has extended to the community providing grief and loss support to victims of fatal family violence. Linda also facilitates support groups for burned injured surviving children and families through Children’s Burn Foundation.  Linda has provided Grief and Loss training to DCFS in LA County and is currently part-time Adjunct Faculty at Azusa Pacific University teaching in the Master’s Program for Child Life Professionals. Linda serves on the Executive Planning Committee for the Childhood Traumatic Loss Conference.

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PALLAVI DHAWAN

LA City Attorney’s Office, Family Violence Operations, Director of Domestic Violence Policy  

Presenting: Domestic Violence and Child Abuse

Course Description: This eLearning provides participants with information regarding the intersection between Domestic Violence and Child Abuse. Domestic Violence is a crime that profoundly affects children. Penal Codes and Family Codes are discussed showing an intersection between definition and law. A case is explored and data regarding family violence is also discussed.

Biography: Pallavi Dhawan is the Director of Domestic Violence (DV) Policy for the Los Angeles City Attorney's Office. She spent 13 years in the L.A. District Attorney's Office where she tried nearly 100 jury trials. She received the 2019 LACBA Prosecutor of the Year award. She is a Fulbright Specialist in domestic violence and child abuse and has trained prosecutors, law enforcement, and advocates in best practices in DV prosecutions. Pallavi received her B.A. and J.D. from UCLA. In her current role, she works on improving policy, legislation, and prosecution in domestic violence cases and helped develop SB 1141, a bill sponsored by her office that adds the definition of coercive control to the Family Code definition of abuse.

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SARA LaCROIX

Prevention Program Coordinator of LA County Community Child Abuse Councils 

Presenting: Role of the Community in Child Abuse Prevention

Course Description: This eLearning will provide participants with knowledge of LA County’s 12 Child Abuse Prevention Councils, which are geographically and population focused. Participants will be provided with an understanding of the roles of these partners in child abuse prevention.  With a Community Council Representative participating in Child Death Reviews, lessons learned are provided from multi-agencies. Councils then provide communities trainings, etc. based on these lessons. The purpose of this e-learning is for participants to grasp knowledge of the Child Abuse Councils in the community and use them as resources for child abuse prevention.

Biography: Sara La Croix, MSW/MPA, is the Director for Strategies TA and the Los Angeles County Child Abuse Prevention Councils (LAC-CAPCs) through the Children's Bureau of Southern California. Sara has a master’s degree in Social Work & Public Administration from the University of Southern California. In the recent past, Sara provided project support to the Population Change Learning Community and is editor of the published work for the Population Change Institute. She is passionate about social justice, community empowerment and changing outcomes for marginalized children and families.

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MICHAEL DURFEE, M.D.

Child Psychiatrist, Child Death Review Team Founder

Presenting: History of Multiagency Child Fatality Review Team

Course Description: This eLearning provides participants with the History of LA County’s Multi-Agency Child Fatality Review Team, the first Child Fatality Review team in the Country. It further explores how many programs came out of the Child Death Review Process. Roles of Multi-Agencies and the Review Process are discussed.  Two cases are explored where Multi-Agencies must look at the “whole puzzle” reviewing the child deaths. Future developments of Child Death Review Teams are discussed. The purpose of this eLearning for Participants to understand the history, process and roles of Child Death Review Teams.

Biography: Dr. Michael Durfee, a child psychiatrist, began multi-agency child fatality review in 1975 and initiated the first team in Los Angeles County in 1978. He has published in the medical literature on child death, child sexual abuse, and grief and mourning in child in survivors of fatal/severe family violence. In 1978, Dr. Michael Durfee convened a group of professionals to analyze suspicious and preventable child deaths. Dr. Durfee’s pioneering work soon became a central part of ICAN. This association has resulted in much greater public awareness of child abuse and neglect-related severe injuries and fatalities in Los Angeles County, as well as in national and international communities.